Propagated by seeds collected from mature trees. Keep in nurseries for one year. Plant young trees under 50% shade. At 6-7 years they can grow in full sun. Space at 6 m x 6 m and thin as needed. Plant 2-3 seedlings on the same spot so male trees can be cut out and excess female trees may be transplanted. To optimize production only 10% of the trees should be male trees and should be distributed equally to support pollination. First flowering occurs about 6 years after planting and reveals sex of tree. Subject to blowdowns in areas with strong winds. Branches should not touch as it impedes flowering. Regular pruning of lower branches is required to facilitate collection of dropped seeds. Prefers volcanic soils and soil with high contents of organic matter at pH 6.5-7.5. After de-husking, the red feathery aril should be removed, flattened out, and dried in the sun for 10-15 days and the nuts dried separately for 4-8 weeks until the kernels rattle within the shells.
Tree Species (Scientific Name)
English Common Name
Indonesian Common Name
Average Leaf Size (cm)
Elevational Range (m)
Native to Indonesia
Laos, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam
Coffee Agroforestry Information
Common in Coffee Agroforestry
Tree Benefits and Uses
The nuts are collected and dried and the fruit is eaten. It is said to have stimulant, carminative (helps expel excess gas), astringent, and aphrodisiac properties. Can be sold at market.