Propagated primarily by sucker regeneration, but some varieties can be grown commercially by seed. Divide suckers in late spring. Sow seeds in individual pots in the spring in a warm, lightly shaded greenhouse at about 20° C. Grow the seedlings in a rich soil, giving occasional liquid feeds. Keep in a greenhouse for at least 3 years before planting outside.
Tree Species (Scientific Name)
English Common Name
Indonesian Common Name
Average Leaf Size (cm)
Elevational Range (m)
Native to Indonesia
Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Maluku Islands, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Sumatra
Coffee Agroforestry Information
Beneficial to coffee
Common in Coffee Agroforestry
Tree Benefits and Uses
The fruits can be sold at market and used as a source of income when coffee sales are insufficient and are eaten as a dessert, steamed for snacks, or used as a supplementary staple, the flowers are eaten, and the leaves are used as wrapping material. The juice of the stem is used to treat leprosy and hysteria and the young leaves are applied as dressings to burns and blisters. In the Hindu religion, the plants are a sign of fertility and prosperity, with the many suckers produced around the parent plant representing the fertility of the married couple. It is used as shade.
- Coffee Shade