Tree Species (Scientific Name)
Areca catechu
Food
Medicinal
Ornamental
Product
Ceremonial
English Common Name
Betelnut palm
Indonesian Common Name
Pinang, Jambe (Javanese, Sundanese), Pua (Lesser Sunda Islands, the Moluccas)
Tree Family
Arecaceae
Average Leaf Size (cm)
52.5cm
Length
×
5cm
Width
Tree Height
Medium (20–35m)
Elevational Range (m)
0–900m
0 3000
Distribution
Native
Exotic
Exotic in Indonesia

Native to

Region
Asia
SE Asia
Philippines

Exotic in

SE Asia
Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
Indonesia
Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Maluku Islands, New Guinea, Sulawesi, Sumatra

Coffee Agroforestry Information

Coffee System
Robusta
Arabica
Coffee Impact
Unknown
Prevalence
Common in Coffee Agroforestry
Cultivation
Planted
Regeneration
Regenerates Naturally
Tree Management

Propagated exclusively by seed but can collect seedlings from fruits dropped by bats and squirrels and raise them into mature palms. Sow mature seeds as whole fruits directly after harvesting or after a few days of drying in semi-shade. Germinates after about 90 days. Select seeds from tree that bears fruit early and regularly, has a large number of leaves on the crown, and has high fruit set. Select fruits that are fully mature and float vertically in water with the top end upward. Seedlings require shade. At 12-24 months plants with five or more leaves can be planted with a ball of earth adhering to the roots. Plant at a depth of about 90 cm in well-drained soils. Requires regular weeding and mulching. Irrigation used in some drier areas and usually cultivated around homes and along upland farm borders. It requires a high, well-distributed annual rainfall of 1500-5000 mm.

Tree Benefits and Uses

Farmer Uses
  • Food
  • Medicinal
  • Ornamental
  • Product
  • Ceremonial

The betel nut is chewed as mild stimulant, contains a large quantity of tannin and oils, and can be sold at market. The nut is applied externally to ulcers, sores, wounds, swellings and skin diseases, and it is used as an antiparasitic for humans and animals, to stimulate menstrual discharge, as a cure for diarrhea, urinary disorders, edema (swelling caused by fluid retention), and low back pain. The fragrant flowers are used in weddings and funerals, its wood used for fencing, and the tree used as a garden accessory.

Farm Services
  • Unknown
Biodiversity Benefits
Unknown