Tree Species (Scientific Name)
Protium tenuifolium
Firewood
Lumber
Medicinal
Product
Peru Common Name
Copal, Incienso
Tree Family
Burseraceae
Average Leaf Size (cm)
10.35cm
Length
×
4.01cm
Width
Tree Height
Medium (20–35m)
Elevational Range (m)
400–1100m
0 3000
Distribution
Native
Exotic
Native to Peru

Native to

Region
Americas
Latin America
Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guyana, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

Coffee Agroforestry Information

Coffee System
Arabica
Coffee Impact
Beneficial to coffee
Prevalence
Not Common in Coffee Agroforestry
Cultivation
Planted
Natural
Tree Management
Planted by seeds and seeds are dispersed by large birds and various mammals. It has ripe reddish fruits which contains the seed and are relatively easy to collect with sticks. The fruits are left to open in the sun and the pulp covering the seeds is removed under water. Without pregermination treatment, an average of 7% germination is obtained, which occurs between 25 and 46 days after planting. Seeds stored at 20ºC lose viability in less than 1 month. Growth in nursery is slow. Seedlings can reach 25-30 cm in height in a time of 8 months. They require partial shade during their initial development. Trees of this species maintain their foliage permanently. It has a low incidence of pests.

Tree Benefits and Uses

Farmer Uses
  • Firewood
  • Lumber
  • Medicinal
  • Product
Harvested from the wild and used for carpentry, construction, joinery, cabinetry, furniture, flooring, household utensils. The resin obtained from the bark is used to light fires. The resin is an astringent.
Farm Services
  • Coffee Shade
  • Soil Improvement
Coffee Shade: generates medium shade coverage
Soil Improvement: drops its leaves in dry season by up to 70 percent, which facilitates the recycling of nutrients and incorporates nutrients into the soil
Biodiversity Benefits
Yes
The biggest consumers of its fruits are toucans, toucans and saltators. Also frequently visited by tanagers, euphonias, chlorophonias, violet magpies and insectivorous birds such as greenlets, vireos and cabezons. The seeds are dispersed by large birds and various mammals.

Citations

Citations
Tropical Plants Database, Ken Fern. tropical.theferns.info. 2022-06-23. tropical.theferns.info/viewtropical.php?id=Protium+tenuifolium
Román, Francisco, et al. Guía para la propagación de 120 especies de árboles nativos de Panamá y el neotrópico. 2012.