Propagated by seeds, cuttings, air layering, or collecting wild saplings from under mature trees. Seeds should be sown fresh from the fruit as they lose viability very rapidly and after 4-6 weeks it rarely germinates. Sow on the surface of loose soil and under shade. Do not bury them as this seriously reduces the germination percentage. Germination starts 1-3 weeks after sowing and is complete after 5-12 weeks. For shade, plant at 6 m x 6 m. For timber production, plant at 2 m x 3 m. Regular pruning is tolerated
Tree Species (Scientific Name)
English Common Name
Indonesian bay leaf
Indonesian Common Name
Salam, Manting (Javanese), Ubar Serai (Sumatra)
Average Leaf Size (cm)
Elevational Range (m)
Native to Indonesia
Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sumatra
Coffee Agroforestry Information
Common in Coffee Agroforestry
Tree Benefits and Uses
Ripe fruits are edible and slightly astringent, and the aromatic leaves are added early on as a spice, either fresh or dried, and left to cook with various meat, fish, rice, and vegetable dishes as their flavor develops gradually. Leaf and bark extracts are used medicinally against diarrhea and pounded leaves, bark, and roots are applied as poultices against itches. The wood is used for house building and furniture.
Used by Javan loris as connectivity. Seeds dispersed by birds.