Propagated by cuttings. Direct seeding not recommended due to severe seed predation. Plant at 100-150 trees/ha. Seedlings need shade until 1.5 m height then gradually introduce to more sunlight. Require full sunlight when they reach 3-4 m height. Beneficial mycorrhizal association which can be established with forest soils to help promote growth, and increase tolerance to drought, high soil temperatures, soil toxicity (organic and inorganic), and extremely low soil pH. Grows best on deep loamy soils with a mean annual rainfall of 3300 mm and no dry season. Tree growth is moderately fast and trees reach 40-50 m in 50 years. Natural regeneration in the forest is robust but enrichment planting may be necessary. Resin can be harvested starting at 15-50 years and continue for 30 years. Tree rotation is approximately 50 years due to reduced photosynthetic and metabolic capacity if regular tapped by this age. Tree density of 100 trees/ha has an estimated resin production of 48 t/ ha per year.
Coffee Agroforestry Information
Tree Benefits and Uses
Wood is used as plywood and veneer and its resin is used in paints and varnishes, in the linoleum industry, pharmaceuticals, cosmetic products, and as a food additive. Traditionally, the resin has been used for torches, caulking boats and baskets, and coloring batik. About 20 years after planting, it can become the main source of income and can last 40-50 years (depending on the intensity of tapping).
- Coffee Shade
- Soil Improvement
Soil improvement: roots have mycorrhizal association absorb and accumulate nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium
Used by many birds for foraging, perching, and nesting.