Plant at 7 x 7 m-10 x 10 m or 48 to 70 trees/acre. Requires full sun. Water newly planted trees immediately and frequently until well established. After establishment water (at least 2.5 cm) with rain or irrigation. If integrating cattle, mulch around the tree to help retain soil moisture and restrict weed growth. About 12% of the old trees (over 60 years old) should be felled each year to completely renovate old stands within 8 years. Fronds, logs and stumps may need to be removed to control the rhinoceros beetle (Orycetes rhinoceras, O. moceros). Able to withstand dry periods and poor soil but rocky, laterite or stagnant soils are unsuitable. Long lived tree. Requires a hot, moist climate and deep alluvial or loamy soil, thriving especially near the coast.
Tree Species (Scientific Name)
English Common Name
Indonesian Common Name
Average Leaf Size (cm)
Elevational Range (m)
Exotic in Indonesia
Papua New Guinea, Philippines
Maluku Islands, New Guinea
Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam
Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, Sumatra
Coffee Agroforestry Information
Common in Coffee Agroforestry
Tree Benefits and Uses
Non-wood products used for crafts. The tree's oil, fruit, coconut sugar, and beverages are used and consumed. It can be sold at market and can produce year round.